Opening Letter to families in Summer Dreamers Swim & Water Polo: SDA17

Dear Students, Guardians and Community:

This letter is long.

The information here is epic.

Reading this may save your life.

Some day in the future you’re going to come home from a day at the pool, or perhaps the lake, river, beach, boating trip or even vacation, and say to yourself, “I’m glad I had Swim & Water Polo with Coach Mark and learned how to be a strong swimmer. With my aquatics insight – I knew what was happening, and we all avoided a tragic disaster.

We have a serious approach. Swim & Water Polo is about life and death. Furthermore is is about empowerment, opportunities and playing well with others.

It is our best, more positive, hope that some day in the future you’ll return from a water polo tournament and say, “I had a great time. That was hard work and a total blast.” You’ll travel, make lots of new friends, be more successful in school as an athlete, get into a more competitive college program and succeed long-term in careers and challenges, in part, because as a youngster you applied yourself and mastered valuable skills and continued to learn all that you could.

Swim & Water Polo teaches physical skills, PLUS, teamwork, sportsmanship, technology and literacy. The digital learning and empowerment are part of a full-on commitment is coached with the youth of Pittsburgh.

Amp it up while at camp, and understand, that in six weeks when summer ends, we are not finished. More programs and events come in August, September, and October. Last winter, we swam at the Saturday Swim School. We’ll play varsity water polo and compete at state championships. Coach Mark wants to turn Summer Dreamers into Year-Round Achievers. Everyone should plan to attend post-camp game days, open-water swims and competitions around town.

Helpers are welcome. Serve as an assistant coach. To guide new staff members, deploy these simple scripts:

One word: Try.

Two words: Try again.

Three words: Close your lips.

Four words: Float like a boat.

Five words: Do what Coach just said.

Cheering, encouragement, praise and support is welcome at every turn. And, we do lots of 360s. Youngsters in Swim & Water Polo make improvements in lifetime skills – swimming, sports and fitness, of course. If you can’t swim today – we practice, learn and compete.

Everyone‘s best behaviors is expected. We listen, try and respect the water, equipment, and teammates. We demand safety, self-control and have always had great success and fun. There are methods to the madness in play here. Over the decades, coach’s leadership and approach has been applied in programs and teams with more than 10,000 youngsters – and it changes. We listen and the kids teach us too.

Get a swim suit. Hold onto it. You might want a second, back-up suit, especially if you come to school from different locations. Boys, try to get a suit that ties. Girls try to get a one-piece suit. Bring your swim suit every day. We try to swim every day including the first day and the last day.

Get swim goggles. Goggles are optional, but the underwater clarity and comfort helps. The PPS Promise Store often has goggles that can be earn through reward behaviors. Giant Eagle sells low cost swim goggles too. When playing water polo, it is often better to take off the goggles. Wear the goggles around your neck or put them with the lifeguard or coach. Remember where you put your goggles. Keep them safe. It is handy to have a back-up pair of goggles at home.

Tip: Put your swim gear in a specific spot at home so it can be easily located and packed for camp every day.

Be prepared for quick locker-room changes. Many kids and staff wear their swim suits to school, under the other clothing. When getting dressed in the morning put your swim suit on first and you’ll never forget or lose your suit. Plus, you’ll be able to skip changing rooms.

Use skin lotions at home. After swimming, some of the kids like to put on lotion. Save that for home.

Apply sun-screen spray and sun-block in the mornings at home. Let’s not get any sunburns. Be prepared. Remind the kids. Insist that your kid seek out sunscreen, even if a temporary inconvenience.

Students play outdoors often. Recess, nature walks and other activities can happen before our squads go to the outdoor pools. We expecting to swim outdoors some days. Most of the swimming is indoors, but one or two days a week, we expect to hike to area Citiparks pools for special practices and games.

Poor weather stops other sports, not us, generally. Rain is not a worry. We love getting wet. Baseball, golf, and tennis do not play in the rain or on wet ground. We are lucky to have indoor and outdoor pools, so rain might bring a wet walk, not run, to and from the pool. If it rains when we are at an outdoor pool, we continue swimming. Thunder and lightening at an outdoor pool is a show stopper.

Tip: Wear easy, comfortable sneakers. We hike to pools, on city sidewalks. From time to time, we play field games and run races.

Try to learn the names the others in our activity. We encourage everyone to say to others, “Hi, my name is ___. (I forgot.) What is your name?” We are together for many days. Learn everyone’s name including other students and teammates, lifeguards, junior coaches, key-guest competitors and adults.

Here are some of the names of some staff members among our various sites: Mark Rauterkus, Executive Head Coach, Toby Junker, Sylvester Hanner, Sam Cahill, Emma Cahill, Kate Sekinger, Gwenivere Winters, Rebekah Jade Ong, Julia Melnyk, Kyra Stief, Clifford Curtis, Tan Kocyildirim, Joie Marhefka, Damien Gabis, Andrew Klein, Mr. Singleton, Ms. Pegher, Miss. Brently, Ms. Tate, Ms. Collins. Some members of the staff have been involved with Swim & Water Polo for many years.

All the swimmers at Summer Dreamers 2017 are ROOKIES. Everyone is new. None were able to do Swim & Water Polo last year as in 2016 we were only placed at Camp Carmalt and had older students.

Tip: Use the hashtag, #SDA17, and wiki category SDA17 for Summer Dreamers Academy 2017. Also, #TPP17, for The Pittsburgh Project 2017. In the mornings, water polo happens at The Pittsburgh Project. In the afternoons it happens with Summer Dreamers.

Get good rest and extra sleep. Swimming is high energy. Camp, school and other activities can add to the drain. Our kids are growing. Welcome naps and long sleeps at home.

Sometimes kids sleep in school, and even at the pool. It has happened. While others say how disrespectful, but that may be where and when it is safe to sleep. We got to be present with our children. Our hope is to be mindful and sensitive to the subtle messages. If a kid takes a nap at the pool, now and then, let’s not be overly alarmed. We get to engage, participate and swimming should be a participation program, not spectator sport. Watching, sitting out and even low tides happen. Staff: No sleeping for sure. Staff does get plenty of day-to-day flexibility for travel, college visits, interviews and competitions.

Communicate health conditions. Every guardian needs to fill out this form.

See the first link on the menu on the site, We are LIFE GUARDS. Help us do our jobs.
Case in point: A bee sting for one student might be treated with a pat on the head and an ice cube. Meanwhile for another student a bee sting requires a 9-1-1 call and a trip to the hospital.

Student data from PPS is NOT SHARED with us. What was reported at to the camp or to the student’s home school might be common knowledge, but it is UNKNOWN to us at the swim pool and on field trips outside the school. Use the form to tell us what needs to be understood about your kid’s health.

Food allergy info is desired too. Let’s avoid problems. Please chime in about problem foods.

SMILE! We use photos, videos, artwork and communication tools to grow our individuals, squads and programs. At the end of the season, we will have a great slide show and share our images and stories with you, and the world. We stay positive and want your support with the photo / model release consent. Thanks for the trust and the opportunity to build our knowledge base and continue to motivate. This is a multimedia-rich, public, venture.

Whistle signals change behaviors. The players in water polo learn that the whistle is used often, it has meaning and consequences. Rookies need to hear the whistle, stop immediately, look for clues, and then act accordingly. Pools are noisy, hard-to-hear settings. Heads up and eyes on the coaches / adults provide dynamic interactions.

Transitions are important and need to be speedy. When it is time to exit the pool, get out! Never swim without permission nor without the lifeguard.

Every day is different at Swim & Water Polo. We change the rules. We adjust the exercises. We build upon the skills from yesterday. Missing practices hurts. We review, but the somersault feeds the streamline and then the flip turn for a three-day sequence. We have plenty to cover, all four strokes, game-play, diving, race strategies and so on. And, the stream comes at different times in different measures.

Guardians: Plan to see your kid swim. Better yet, swim with your kid outside of school. Work to make extra, optional times to be at the pools together this summer.

True story: One recent summer, a young Summer Dreamer (his photo is below) went to camp on the first day with his fearful parents. He was among the worst swimmers at the start. Every week, twice a week, this student and a parent went together to a Citipark pool for optional practices. Three weeks later he passed his deep test and by the last week, he was among the best swimmers of the 50+ in the camp. (He is one of the guys in this photo taken at the Sue Murray pool at one of our optional evening practices.)

Optional, extra evening practice group at Citiparks Sue Murray swim pool. One of these kids was the most improved.


Tuesday nights, weather permitting, students and families are invited to come out to swim and play games at 6 pm at Citiparks Ammon Rec Center Pool, corner of Bedford Ave and Memory Lane in Pittsburgh’s Hill District. Pool is about 6 blocks from the Penguins arena. Come there – every week if you can. Get a car-pool together. Friends welcome too.

On the final day of camp, from about 2 to 3:30 pm, Wednesday, August 2, come to our game day at the pool as part of Summer Dreamers. Come and be a fan. Cheer for the kids.

Other game-day opportunities are expected within camp and after camp ends. We hope to have a city-wide water polo festival with plenty of teams. Games with kids playing against their guardians are expected too in the evenings and weekend. Our SKWIM game is an excellent inter-generational activity and lots of fun, even for non-swimmers.

We’ve invested and obtained new swim fins. We use official SKWIM fins. Kids that grow up near the beach always swim with fins. You might want to buy a pair of fins for vacations and swimming elsewhere. They are available through a Florida outlet, Buy SKWIM disks at too.

The island SKWIM goals and lagoon boarder are new. but shared at different pools. It is okay to toss balls and disks, but not fins and other equipment. The equipment needs to be organized and put away after use.

Hydrate. Drink lots of water this summer. Make a point of it. Sugar drinks, not so much.

Some kids play other sports, such as baseball, softball and football. All other sports blend well with swimming. Swimming and water polo can help you be a better football player. Do both. Don’t ask to dial it back at the pool because of other sports activities.

Frustration and failure are part of the day-to-day challenges in serious sport settings. We work hard and push to do things that have not been done before. Don’t quit. Give your best effort. As you kick hard, it might feel like your legs are going to fall off, but they won’t. Keep plugging. No cheating. And when the official / referee makes a bad call, live with it. No complaining. More on to the next play. Play hard to the game or task is finished – then stop. Generate positive self-talk.

Swim & Water Polo is stresses sportsmanship and teamwork. Make new friends, travel to new pools, and play among other teams. The technology and literacy efforts in Swim & Water Polo is special too with website courses, digital badges, and interactive courses.

Every student gets a USER NAME and Password for the digital content at The opening password is SDA17. That can be changed by the user. Guardians are encouraged to help the students with the on-line materials. Do a quiz together. Explore on the same PC or screen. Friends and family who are interested in our digital courses and activities are able to get their own accounts. Just ask via email. Online lessons and quiz content continues to grow. We’ll publish a new book this fall.

Strong is gorgeous. Tip: Spending money on hair appointments, perms and getting fab nails this summer, while going into the pool makes no sense. We are going to get our hair wet. The finger and toe nails should be short so as to play without inflicting scratches.

More paperwork is pending. Permission slips and off-campus swimming are expected. Guardians, be on guard for some extra paperwork in the first week of camp with dates, times and locations for game play.

Northside students go off campus every day.

U-Prep students are expected to go off campus to swim and play games once a week.

The field trips and off campus swims sessions happen within normal times of Summer Dreamers. Everyone returns to the school and is able to board the buses home by 4 pm.

Extended day swim meets (field trips) are a possibility, as an OPTION. Any special event would come with plenty of advance notification and eligibility is limited to those with signed permission slips, good behavior, and pick-up for transport home. For now,we will delay the discussion and details for a later memo and just focus on the afternoon Swim & Water Polo within camp times.

SKWIM is an aquatic game played with a disk. In Pittsburgh, we’ve used SKWIM as an alternative and supplement to water polo for nearly ten years. We play both SKWIM and water polo. The two games have similarities and differences. Water polo is an Olympic sport and popular in many nations around the world. Water polo was the first team sport introduced in the modern Olympics. You can watch and learn lots about water polo for both men and women on YouTube.

SKWIM’s camp rules:

– Players can hold the disk for three seconds. Passes, shots or held disk beyond three seconds are a turn-over, and the other team gets the possession of the disk.

– The disk must touch the water before a pass to a teammate and before a shot on goal. No air-to-air passes.

– The disk must stay at or above the surface of the water. No sinking the disk.

– Defense can’t touch the person with the disk or steal it from the opponent’s hand. No physical contact.

– Rough play sends a player to the penalty box (much like hockey) for 20-seconds. Play nice or sit out.

Another important site at is the Google Calendar. You can subscribe to that and watch the events throughout the year.

Any questions: Feel free to call, email or visit on Tuesday nights at Ammon pool.

Thanks for your support and encouragement. Help Swim & Water Polo continue to as the most attended and highly desired activity in Pittsburgh Public Schools Summer Dreamers Academy.

Mark Rauterkus
Executive Head Coach
Swim & Water Polo
Head Varsity Coach at Pittsburgh Obama Academy
412-298-3432 = cell

Water polo launch pad and deep-water swimming happens a couple weeks later

“Well begun is half done.” — Marry Poppins

Nearly 60 students jump into the pool on the first day of Pittsburgh Public Schools’ Summer Dreamers at Swim & Water Polo. The students get to perform in an routine that we call a “Show Off Swim.”

Lots are afraid on the first days as many of the students do not get to the swim pool that often. Our class is filled with beginners. The transformation into aquatic athletes starts with a parade shown in the video below. Do your best to swim across the pool, climb out, walk back to the start and try again. If you can’t swim, fake it, or else walk, run and hope.

Show us the best you’ve got. Get across the pool. Swim freestyle. Stay off the bottom. Close your lips. Float. Kick. Use your arms. Pull. Keep going. Try. All the way. Head down. Hold your breath. Go. You can do it too.

Summer Dreamers offers 27 days of “summer school.” The students get to swim every day, if things go as we hope. A few weeks later, all the kids are swimming across the deep end. They learn a life-skill. We have fun.

The progress and achievements that these kids earn for themselves in this program is hard to describe to the typical, non-swimming, school district bureaucrat.

In Later Weeks: Game on!

Swimming on the weekends and a skill for life

Swimming is a good thing


Proposal for Swim & Water Polo for Summer Dreamers 2017 has been submitted

In 2016, the contract for Swim & Water Polo from Pittsburgh Public School was for 47 students. That was about 25% of the contract for 2015.

In 2017, the aim is to get more sites, more students and more water polo.


Planning and proposals are being crafted for activities for Pittsburgh Public Schools’ Summer Dreamers Academy. Early feedback may arrive in January.


Swim & Water Polo, always one of the most popular activities among students, gets everyone into the pool every day. If you can’t swim, you’ll learn. We improve our strokes, abilities and all become deep-end swimmers, divers and real aquatic athletes. Play various aquatic games, especially SKWIM and Olympic water polo. Zoom ahead in your fitness, strength, teamwork skills and have fun.

Boys, girls, camp coaches at swim pool.
Rohan, Toby and swimmers with Swim & Water Polo at PPS Summer Dreamers at Highland Park Pool.

Asking Pittsburgh Public Schools to switch funding at Obama from golf to water polo

Expanded testimony from October 18, 2016

Mark Rauterkus
Mark Rauterkus

I am Mark Rauterkus,, of Pittsburgh’s South Side. I coach for the district and was on the PPS Athletic Reform Task Force, inactive for more than five years. My sons graduated from PPS and are in college.

I speak at public hearings and attend many community and government meetings around town often, generally as an advocate for system-wide issues. Today, is different. I have a specific request for the superintendent and/or school board members. This request does benefit dozens, if not hundreds, of students in the future.


River of support with or without obstructions
River of support with or without obstructions

I’m here because the chain-of-command from school athletic director, principal and district athletic office are not inclined to make these changes themselves. The mechanism for making changes to our athletic landscape from within the system are still absent. Furthermore, the desire to reconvene district-wide athletic reform is absent among certain key employees. Perhaps sports reform and an evolution of opportunities is going to change in the months to come with the new board and superintendent. Time will tell. I have high hopes.

I do receive a “river of support” from various people within PPS. Sadly, significant, often predictable and inexplicable obstructions appear. We’ve learned how to navigate around a few of them in the last decade. But, in my view, we still have oceans full of challenges regarding after-school, sports, wellness and the issues that revolve around the leading of quality programs for our students.

Present fall snapshot

Saturday Swim School, week 3
Saturday Swim School, week 3

Presently, I’m coaching Swim & Water Polo to 100+ city-kids, both boys and girls, generally in co-ed settings. Most of these kids are in the middle-school grades.

  • 30 at the charter school,
  • 20 at Arsenal,
  • 20 at Obama,
  • 20, so far, at the Saturday Swim School held at Oliver Citiwide High School.
    More are welcome and expected on Saturdays. See the hand-out.
  • Plus, about 30 are gearing up for the varsity teams.
Group photo of Obama MS water polo players and coach in fall 2016
More than 25 Obama middle school water polo players were gearing up for games in the fall of 2016. Here we are at the pool at the Kingsley Center for an intra-squad game.

Recent summer’s snapshot

We had 50 students in Swim & Water Polo at Pittsburgh Public Schools’ Summer Dreamers Academy in 2016. Sadly we got stuck at Carmalt without a pool and needed to take bus rides every day to Brashear High School. We have successfully coached 200 Summer Dreamers in 2015, (and nearly that many in prior summers). We should be trending to serve more than 500 kids every summer at Swim & Water Polo within Summer Dreamers, in my humble opinion.

Another 90 kids, grades 1 to 9, played Swim & Water Polo as part of their summer camp experience thanks to the support of The Pittsburgh Project on Pittsburgh’s Northside.

My coaching is a labor of love for very little money that reaches lots of kids for many days. We are teaching kids how to swim and then we pull out the water disks and balls and build teams and push them into experiences as aquatic athletes.

Here and There

Plenty of this occurs with volunteer efforts, but some funding considerations are necessary. This year a $2,500 discrepancy surfaced with the Summer Dreamers contract because PPS staff shortages necessitated my hire of additional coaches. That’s a sizable chunk of money in this endeavor. This is an issue for another day, sorta.

This fall, I’m at five different pools, off and on, and I’m only talking about OUT OF SCHOOL TIME, not in-school Physical Education.

Swim squad at Arsenal Middle School
Squad at Arsenal Middle School

Pool Capacity

Pittsburgh Public Schools owns and operates 14 indoor swim pools. These pools, public assets, sit idle often, especially after-school days, in the evenings, at nights, on weekends, throughout holidays and in the summers. I think only two of the 14 pools were used in very limited hours on some days this summer. My calculations claim that the capacity for training swimmers, in these outside-the-school-day opportunities should reach more than 6,000 individuals every year. We might engage 600 now.

Water polo ball at side of pool, in the shallow end. We often play "bottom friendly water polo" with kids who are just learning how to swim.
Water polo ball at side of pool, in the shallow end. We often play “bottom friendly water polo” with kids who are just learning how to swim.

The investments to build these pools has been made. We own them. We manage them. We have closed a few of them in recent years, such as Reizenstein, Schenley, Prospect, South, Knoxville, Gladstone. But the point to stress with these school pools is that they are cement and tile structures filled with water, and the water in those swim pools does not wear out. In my biased opinion, these swim pools are nearly indestructible, and as classrooms, the swim pools are the best learning laboratories our kids might ever encounter when it comes to teaching them lessons of personal and group excellence.


In the fall of 2016, there was ONE student on the Obama golf team.

In the fall of 2016 and 2015, NONE of the Obama golfers even went to the city championships.

I was Obama’s Golf Coach

I know about golf at Obama, because, I coached that team for two seasons in 2012 and 2013.

Obama Golf Team at Steps of School
Past Obama Golf Team with Coach Rauterkus at steps of school. Bus in the background, because we had to bus to practices and matches.
Golfers meet at a course
Golfers from various teams meet at a course
Older photo: District 8, Golf Championships Finalist with city golfers except Allderdice, a team that played in the WPIAL that year.
Golfers at The Bob O'Connor Course
Golfers at The Bob O’Connor Course

The ask:

I’m asking for the PPS Board and Superintendent to PULL the plug on Varsity GOLF at Obama and redirect the sports budget for golf to water polo at Obama. Both golf and water polo are fall sports.

Replace the golf team (and its one athlete) with water polo and gain 20 to 60 kids on teams next year. We’ll have boys and girls water polo teams at the varsity, junior varsity and middle school levels.

Kids grow

More than 20 middle school students, mostly girls, at Obama Academy, played water polo in the fall of 2016. The 2016-17 middle school swim teams grew in participation, in part, due to water polo too. Some of the water polo players and competitive swimmers were former players in Swim & Water Polo as part of Summer Dreamers.


Well, … we should have had middle-school water polo games in the fall of 2016, but the pool was closed for a three week period for a needed electrical inspection.

In the spring of 2016, I volunteered and taught more than 15 6th grade boys how to swim and play water polo. We had three times as many kids and as many practices with the optional, spring water polo as the Obama Middle School Swim Team did with its official winter season. These same kids are still excited as 7th graders. Our reach with water polo this year has grown to include kids in all the middle-school grades.

I think they deserve a funded and supported high school water polo team to look forward too.

We have a swim pool. We don’t have a golf course.

We have the demand for water polo. Golf has gone down the drain at Obama.

Water polo will keep our kids engaged, fit and excited about swimming. Water polo will help the swim teams and get many kids to learn to swim and one-day become lifeguards.


A modest budget is necessary to cover costs for uniforms, officials, travel, equipment and a coach. But we’re cutting golf expenses.

Build Upon Our Success in the Pool

Podium of 100 back in 2017 at WPIALs
Obama swimmer at the top of the podium, again, at the WPIAL Championships. Plus, he set a WPIAL record, the first ever from a PPS student.

Golf can survive


Truth be told, Pittsburgh Public Schools does not really need to eliminate golf opportunities. The solution I’m proposing does not pit one sport against another. Looking deeper, let’s make this a win-win with some level-headed reforms.

The easiest understanding is an awareness that kids and families vote with their feet. If a student wants to play golf, that student can enroll in Allderdice High School. Families depart the city school all the time due to the disparity of the athletic opportunities presented at city school when contrasted to most of the suburban schools. Allerdice is closer to the Bob O’Connor Golf Course in Schenley Park and that school has a much better tradition of golf than all the other schools in the district. Still, there is no girls golf team at Allderdice. Golf at Allderdice could use the extra players and support.

Older photo: Obama Golf Squad when coach by Mark Rauterkus
Older photo: Obama Golf Squad when coach by Mark Rauterkus


Additionally, Pittsburgh Public Schools could tinker with the sports co-op agreements among Allderdice High School, Obama Academy and Sci-Tech with golf so that students from all three schools could compete in varsity golf for Allderdice. If a CAPA student who resides within the Allderdice feeder pattern wants to play golf at Allderdice, he or she can join the team. Same with a home-schooled student. Students who go to Obama could join the Allderdice golf squad too if the co-op is formed and the letters are sent to the PIAA (Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Assocation) office.

Two way Cooperation with Water Polo and Golf

Likewise let’s leverage the co-op agreements in Water Polo as is suggested for Golf.

Co-op sports agreements should be floated so interested students at Allderdice can join Obama’s Water Polo Teams.

This happens frequently in suburban districts. One school district offers a swim team while the other school district offers a wrestling team. Then, kids from both school districts can do both sports. A majority of the swim teams in the WPIAL Class AA Section that includes Obama Academy are co-op teams. Carlynton High School has a pool and a swim team that allows the Bishop Canevin students to join. This is a regular occurrence in the scholastic sports landscape among some smaller schools. It is not ideal, but it happens.

USO Football T-shirt
USO Football t-shirt

The USO football team in Pittsburgh Public Schools includes students from U-Prep, Sci-Tech and Obama. A similar deal can happen with golf and water polo too, if creative thinking can prevail.

David, Sead, Mark, Noah, Zack, E.
David, Sead, Mark, Noah, Zack, E.
Zack O as employee
Zack O, departed Sci-Tech after 9th and 10th grade to attend Allderdice. Zack worked as a lifeguard for Swim & Water Polo Camp in the summer of 2015.
    Obama’s water polo team could be extended to support students from:

  • Allderdice,
  • Westinghouse,
  • U-Prep,
  • Oliver,
  • CAPA,
  • Sci-Tech,
  • Winchester Thurston,
  • Ellis,
  • Seton LaSalle,
  • and perhaps a few other smaller schools within and next to the city’s borders.

Pittsburgh Combined

When we went to Ohio on past occasions, we called ourselves, Pittsburgh Combined.

Then we’ve got a best of all world’s situation, more kids with better opportunities.


Thanks for the governmental oversight.

Thanks for listening and the consideration. I look forward to hearing from you soon. My cell: 412-298-3432.

Goal, or no goal?
Goal, or no goal?

Hear Mark’s 3-minute presentation to the PPS Board:

Associated Handouts

Printed materials provided at the public hearing on October 17, 2016.